part of an ongoing research by
Chapter previously titled
"How Sound Is Created"
A moving string generates sound by vacuating air particles behind it.
The movement of the string, swinging through air, compresses air particles in the direction of movement and leaves an empty space behind it called vacuum.
Sound is created by air particles collapsing into the vacuum.
The precise movement of (every part of) the string through air particles, and the exact angle at which particles are pushed towards compression, determines the precise movement and rotation of the particles collapsing into the vacuum.
Transverse Section through the Moving String — original images created and copyrighted by Dale Pond, and published in
“Universal Laws Never Before Revealed: Keely’s Secrets - Understanding and Using the Science of Sympathetic Vibration”
by Dale Pond, John Keely, Nikola Tesla, Edgar Cayce and seven others.
Try it! Find for yourself what music really is. All you need is a stick or cable, thinner than any of your fingers and as long as your arm. These dimensions are just an approximation; you may experiment with different sizes.
Find a wide space and make shure there's nobody around you. Now grab the stick or cable from one end and move it through air, in any direction, as fast as you can. Listen carefully to the sound...
«From whence does the flute sound come? It comes not from the bamboo or the lacquer or the material aspects of a flute but from the shape of the void within the flute. Flute sounds come directly from the void.»
The following is an artistic rendition of a transversal slice through a 3-dimensional, spherical sound bubble made out of air molecules. It is not a picture of sound, because sound is formless; rather, it is a conceptual image of the effect sound has on air particles.
image copyright: http://www.npr.org/2014/04/09/300563606/what-does-sound-look-like
As sound expands spherically from its generating source, it creates spherical waves that spread simultaneously in all directions.
image copyright: http://intothecontinuum.tumblr.com/post/29160638835/is-it-possible-to-visualize-3-dimensional-standing
The intensity, or power of the initial vibration is lost in an inverelsy proportional ratio to the surface of the expansion: the perimeter of the sphere. Its value is given by the Inverse Square Law:
image copyright: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/acoustic/invsqs.html
It is generally believed that sound is a "pressure (transversal) wave", and therefore not a part of the electro-magnetic spectrum. Those who defend this speculation have no proof of its validity, and their only argument rests on the same theory shoved up their throats by institutionalized education.
There can be no "pressure waves" in nature, because there is no movement of this type in nature. Planets and electrons do not move back and forth, but rather rotate around a center. Air molecules make no exception, and no matter the sound source, there can be no air particles moving back and forth, propagating 2-dimensional "waves" of sound.
Until someone will be able to show that "pressure waves" exist as back-and-forth rocking "longitudinal waves" by making a slow-motion recording of some sorts with air particles' precise movement, the established concept will retain its status as just another errorneous speculation.
image copyright: http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Physical-Science-Concepts-For-Middle-School/section/5.22/
Surface water waves are said to be "the combination of Transverse and Longitudinal Waves". When in fact all movement that can be defined through frequency, that is, any "wave", can be shown to involve molecules moving on a circular path, rotating about a center.
The tension-springs methaphor used in physics is a comparison meant to show the effect of sound on matter; such descriptions do not take into account the source and nature of movement generating the "wave".
"Transverse and Longitudinal Waves" cannot exist as such in nature, because they imply particle movement up-and-down and back-and-forth, which is never the case and cannot be demonstrated to be so. Confinement of circular motion to almost back-and-forth movement can take place in extreme cases, but this is the result of other forces, not that of the source.
Imagine the sound sphere as made out of increasingly larger circles just like in the right image above, but with the following differences:
image source: “Handbook of Acoustics for the Use of Musical Students (8th ed)”
by Thomas Frederick Harris, 1910; CHAPTER II. The Transmission of Sound; Fig. 10, page 12.
image copyright: http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/Demos/waves/wavemotion.html
Now all we have to do is integrate the above dynamics into those from the pictures below, which are but a 2D slice of a 3D Sound Sphere, by squeezing all bottom particles into one point from which the rest expand radially, adding another dimension to the oscillation by integrating vibration, and finally adjusting the phase of each spin so as to carry the central information in a vortex-like pattern to the outter edges of the sphere.
RIGHT http://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=2561#p27900 CHECK SOURCE WITH TINPYC
Sound, just like gravity and wind, can be experienced but cannot be seen. Since ancient times, humans have been fascinated by the unseen manifestations of sound and tried to understand them.
The tuning fork is caused to write the story of its own motion.
image copyright: see endnote 2
it seems this is just a copy of the original: Helmholtz, page 20
«To study these vibrations in detail, we may attach a stiff bristle or a light gramophone needle to the end of one prong of the fork, and while the fork is in vibration, run a piece of smoked glass under it as shewn in fig. 6, taking care that it moves in a perfectly straight line and at a perfectly steady speed.»2
In the mid-nineteenth century, Jules Lissajous, a French mathematician, found that if he placed a small mirror at the tip of a tuning fork while aiming a light beam at it, the vibration could be thrown onto a dark screen. When the tuning fork was struck, a small vertical line was produced, and if quickly cast sideways with another mirror it produced a “sine wave”. TO DO: reformulate. he didn't just found, he experimented exactly with that. check tynddall page 86
image copyright: see endnote 1
Lissajous' experiment is just an elegant form of transcribing motion into a mathematical graphic, the sine wave, without having the vibrating medium touching the paper.
These representations were confirmed in the early 20th century with the invention of the Oscilloscope. It has been commonly believed ever since, that audible sounds are wave-like in nature. The fact is, the sine wave is an accurate representation of the movement that the vibrating object makes in time, and not how sound actually moves through space as energy.
Sound sets matter into motion. Rhythmic motion to the music is called dance. Matter dances to sound just like our bodies dance to music.
The science of movement and patterns created by sound frequencies on physical surfaces and inside mediums, that is, the science of dancing matter, is called Cymatics.
image copyright: Rodrick Bond http://www.rodrickbond.com/new-work-fluid-dynamics
image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/mrbend/5851905374/
Cymatics is in no way "sound made visible", but the effects sound has on different material bodies having different physical properties. The same frequency applied to a plate with sand will create a totally different pattern for every variation in the plate's shape, size, thickness, material, as well as variations of the oscillating medium (sand, salt, etc.) and will look completely different in different liquids like water, oil, corn starch, etc.
image copyright: Dan Bore. Cymatics.org
image source: http://www.janmeinema.com/cymatics/gallery/cymatics_water_sound_image_0011.html
Last updated: 04 june 2015
References (TO DO):
1 Sound. A course of eight lectures delivered at The Royal Institution of Great Britain
By John Tyndall, LL.D. F.R.S. (1820—1893)
London: Longmans, Green, and Co. 1867.
Lecture II, Optical expression of the Vibrations of a Tuning-fork, Fig. 20., page 61
Copy of book availanle online here
2 Science & Music by Sir James Hopwood Jeans (1877—1946)
New York: The Macmillan Company
Cambridge, England: At The University Press
Copyright, 1937, by THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.
Chapter II Tuning-Forks and Pure Tones, Fig. 6., page 18
Copy of book available online here